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Bone Diseases

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Osteoporosis

Signs and Symptoms: Recurrent back pain, height loss, and bone fracturing (Imperial Valley College, 2008).

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Pathophysiology: Mineralization breakdown and softening of the bone (McCarthy & Frassica, 2014).

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Etiology: Estrogen deficiency, calcium deficiency, and testosterone deficiency (Imperial Valley College, 2008).

Clinical Manifestations: Skeletal disorder caused by bone fractures (McCarthy & Frassica, 2014).

Possible Complications: Hip and spine fractures (McCarthy & Frassica, 2014).

Treatment: Bisphoshate medications, such as Ibandronate, Risedronate, Alendronate, and Zoledronic acid (Imperial Valley College, 2008).

Osteomalacia

Signs and Symptoms: Bone fracturing and muscle weakness (McCarthy & Frassica, 2014).

Pathophysiology: Mineralization breakdown and softening of the bone tissue (McCarthy & Frassica, 2014).

Etiology: Vitamin D deficiency, kidney and liver disorders, and celiac disease (Imperial Valley College, 2008).

Clinical Manifestations: Weakness of the muscles and pain in the bones (McCarthy & Frassica, 2014).

Possible Complications: Breaking of bones especially in the ribs, legs, and spine (McCarthy & Frassica, 2014).

Treatment: Vitamin D supplements, calcium and phosphorous supplements (Imperial Valley College, 2008).

Rheumatoid Arthritis

Signs and Symptoms: Prolonged fatigue, weight loss, fever, and stiffness (McCarthy & Frassica, 2014).

Pathophysiology: Joint synovitis (inflammation of the joints) and pannus (infiltration of newly formed synovial tissue with inflammatory cells) (McCarthy & Frassica, 2014).

Etiology: A mild deficiency of cortisol, deficiency of dehydro-epi-androsterone (DHEA), and infection by mycoplasma among other organisms (Imperial Valley College, 2008).

Clinical Manifestations: Intermittent joint complications, monoarticular disease, and complications of the lungs, heart, eyes, nerve tissue, kidneys, and skin among other organs (McCarthy & Frassica, 2014).

Possible Complications: Abnormal proportion of body fat to lean mass, carpal tunnel syndrome, lung disease, heart disease, and lymphoma (Imperial Valley College, 2008).

Treatment: Intake of disease-modifying anti-rheumatoid drugs (DMARDs) (McCarthy & Frassica, 2014).

Gout

Signs and Symptoms: Acute infection involves painful swollen joints, while chronic infection involves joints aching (Imperial Valley

College, 2008).

Pathophysiology: Irregular lines of MSU crystals on the articular cartilage, hyperechoic, and bony erosions near tophaceous deposits (McCarthy & Frassica, 2014).

Etiology: Excess uric acid in the blood or hyperuricemia and gene inheritance.

Clinical Manifestations: Migratory polyarthritis, posterior intersseus nerve syndrome, and general inflammation (erythema, swelling, and tenderness) (Imperial Valley College, 2008).

Possible Complications: Recurrent gout, kidney stones, uric acid nephropathy, and spinal cord impingement (McCarthy & Frassica, 2014).

Treatment: Corticosteroids, colchione, and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).

Osteoarthritis

Signs and Symptoms: Cardinal joint pain upon bearing weight, abnormal swelling, and nerve impingement (McCarthy & Frassica, 2014).

Pathophysiology: Unprotected subchondral bone develops into scherosis, capsules of the joints thickens, and loss of cartilage.

Etiology: Aging, obesity, infections, mechanical misalignment, and medications that stimulate digestive enzymes (McCarthy & Frassica, 2014).

Clinical Manifestations: Nocturnal pain that is not relieved by rest, pain in the joints, and paraesthesia (Imperial Valley College, 2008).

Possible Complications: Joint complication, particularly in the spine, hips, and knees (Imperial Valley College, 2008).

Treatment: General rest, weight reduction and management, steroid injection, and regular exercises.

 

1. Imperial Valley College. (2008). Musculoskeletal system. Retrieved from

http://www.imperial.edu/admin/Media/File_Upload/153-Files/Orthochronic%20Conditions%20For%20Immune%20Handouts.pdf

2. McCarthy, E. F., & Frassica, F. J. (2014). Pathology of bone and joint disorders. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.

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