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 Discussion Board Statement: These discussions are meant for you to jot down your thoughts and analyses of the works of the week. In art, everything is evaluated by your perspective. There is no right or wrong answer to be graded against; instead, you will be graded on how you defend your analysis of the art pieces and the use of the resources (when appropriate).In Pre-Renaissance Western art, Christian themes such as iconic images of saints, pages of illuminated manuscripts, or cathedral sculptures were objects of religious contemplation. Viewers looked at these pieces without consideration for their creators. This changed in the Renaissance.

  • What do you think it is about the artists of the Renaissance that brings this change?
  • Is it the renewed interest in classical ideology, or does the incredible quality of the work make the artist impossible to ignore?
  • What about the role assistants and apprentices played in Renaissance workshops?
  • Select at least one piece from this week’s reading that best expresses this idea of the artist as an individual genius and explain why.
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Chapter 23

HIGH RENAISSANCE AND MANNERISM IN NORTHERN EUROPE AND SPAIN

Kleiner, Gardner’s Art through the Ages: A Global History, 16th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Learning Objectives

Explain how 16th-century northern European art reflects the principles of the Protestant Reformation.

Describe Dürer’s art theory and its impact on his work.

Discuss the history, processes, and functions of prints in northern Europe.

Detail the role of patrons in the art and architecture of the 16th century.

Discuss the development of art and architecture during this period in France, especially as influenced by the patronage of Louis I.

Outline the role of women as both artists and patrons during this period.

Describe the influence of Italian Renaissance and Mannerist art in northern Europe and Spain.

Describe how 16th-century Spanish art embodies the principles of the Catholic Counter-Reformation.

Kleiner, Gardner’s Art through the Ages: A Global History, 16th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

2

MAP 23.1

23.1 Europe in the early 16th century.

Kleiner, Gardner’s Art through the Ages: A Global History, 16th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

3

Figure 23.1

23.1 Quinten Massys, Money-Changer and His Wife, 1514. Oil on wood, 2′ 3 3/4″  2′ 2 3/8″. Musée du Louvre, Paris.

Kleiner, Gardner’s Art through the Ages: A Global History, 16th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

4

Figure 23.2

23.2 Matthias Grünewald, Isenheim Altarpiece (top: closed; bottom: open), from the chapel of the Hospital of Saint Anthony, Isenheim, France, ca. 1512–1515. Oil on wood, center panel 9′ 9 1/2″  10′ 9″, each wing 8′ 2 1/2″  3′ 1/2″, predella 2′ 5 1/2″  11′ 2″. Shrine carved by Nikolaus Hagenauer, ca. 1505. Painted and gilt limewood, 9′ 9 1/2″  10′ 9″. Musée d’Unterlinden, Colmar.

Kleiner, Gardner’s Art through the Ages: A Global History, 16th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

5

Figure 23.3

23.3 Albrecht Dürer, Self-Portrait, 1500. Oil on wood, 2′ 2 1/4″  1′ 7 1/4″. Alte Pinakothek, Munich.

Kleiner, Gardner’s Art through the Ages: A Global History, 16th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

6

Figure 23.3A

23.3A Albrecht Dürer, Great Piece of Turf, 1503. Watercolor, 1′ 3 3/4″  1′ 3/8″. Albertina, Vienna.

Kleiner, Gardner’s Art through the Ages: A Global History, 16th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

7

Figure 23.4

23.4 Albrecht Dürer, Fall of Man (Adam and Eve), 1504. Engraving, 9 7/8″  7 5/8″. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston (centennial gift of Landon T. Clay).

Kleiner, Gardner’s Art through the Ages: A Global History, 16th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

8

Figure 23.4A

23.4A Albrecht Dürer, Knight, Death, and the Devil, 1513. Engraving, 9 5/8″  7 3/8″. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.

Kleiner, Gardner’s Art through the Ages: A Global History, 16th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

9

Figure 23.5

23.5 Albrecht Dürer, Melencolia I, 1514. Engraving, 9 3/8″  7 1/2″. Victoria & Albert Museum, London.

Kleiner, Gardner’s Art through the Ages: A Global History, 16th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

10

Figure 23.6

23.6 Albrecht Dürer, Four Apostles, from the city hall, Nuremberg, Germany, 1526. Oil on wood, each panel 7′ 1″  2′ 6″. Alte Pinakothek, Munich.

Kleiner, Gardner’s Art through the Ages: A Global History, 16th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

11

Figure 23.7

23.7 Lucas Cranach the Elder, Law and Gospel, ca. 1530. Woodcut, 10 5/8″  1′ 3/4″. British Museum, London.

Kleiner, Gardner’s Art through the Ages: A Global History, 16th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

12

Figure 23.8

23.8 Lucas Cranach the Elder, Judgment of Paris, 1530. Oil on wood, 1′ 1 1/2″  9 1/2″. Staatliche Kunsthalle, Karlsruhe.

Kleiner, Gardner’s Art through the Ages: A Global History, 16th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

13

Figure 23.9

23.9 Hans Baldung Grien, Witches’ Sabbath, 1510. Chiaroscuro woodcut, 1′ 2 7/8″  10 1/4″. British Museum, London.

Kleiner, Gardner’s Art through the Ages: A Global History, 16th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

14

Figure 23.10

23.10 Hans Baldung Grien, Three Ages of Woman and Death, 1510. Oil on wood, 1′ 3 3/4″  1′ 3/4″. Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna.

Kleiner, Gardner’s Art through the Ages: A Global History, 16th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

15

Figure 23.11

23.11 Albrecht Altdorfer, Battle of Issus, 1529. Oil on wood, 5′ 2 1/4″  3′ 11 1/4″. Alte Pinakothek, Munich.

Kleiner, Gardner’s Art through the Ages: A Global History, 16th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

16

Figure 23.12

23.12 Hans Holbein the Younger, The French Ambassadors, 1533. Oil and tempera on wood, 6′ 8″  6′ 9 1/2″. National Gallery, London.

Kleiner, Gardner’s Art through the Ages: A Global History, 16th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

17

Figure 23.12A

23.12A Hans Holbein the Younger, Henry VIII, 1540. Oil on wood, 2′ 8 1/2″  2′ 5 1/2″. Galleria Nazionale d’Arte Antica, Palazzo Barberini, Rome.

Kleiner, Gardner’s Art through the Ages: A Global History, 16th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

18

Figure 23.13

23.13 Hieronymus Bosch, Garden of Earthly Delights, ca. 1505–1510. Oil on wood, center panel 7′ 2 5/8″  6′ 4 3/4″, each wing 7′ 2 5/8″  3′ 2 1/4″. Museo del Prado, Madrid.

Kleiner, Gardner’s Art through the Ages: A Global History, 16th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

19

Figure 23.14

23.14 Jan Gossaert, Neptune and Amphitrite, 1516. Oil on wood, 6′ 2″  4′ 3/4″. Gemäldegalerie, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Berlin.

Kleiner, Gardner’s Art through the Ages: A Global History, 16th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

20

Figure 23.14A

23.14A Jan Gossaert, Saint Luke Drawing the Virgin Mary, ca. 1520. Oil on wood, 3′ 7 1/8″  2′ 8 1/4″. Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna.

Kleiner, Gardner’s Art through the Ages: A Global History, 16th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

21

Figure 23.15

23.15 Pieter Aertsen, Butcher’s Stall, 1551. Oil on wood, 4′ 3/8″  6′ 5 3/4″. Uppsala University Art Collection, Uppsala.

Kleiner, Gardner’s Art through the Ages: A Global History, 16th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

22

Figure 23.16

23.16 Caterina van Hemessen, Self-Portrait, 1548. Oil on wood, 1′ 3/4″  9 7/8″. Kunstmuseum Basel, Basel.

Kleiner, Gardner’s Art through the Ages: A Global History, 16th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

23

Figure 23.17

23.17 Attributed to Levina Teerlinc, Elizabeth I as a Princess, ca. 1559. Oil on wood, 3′ 6 3/4″  2′ 8 1/4″. Royal Collection, Windsor Castle, Windsor.

Kleiner, Gardner’s Art through the Ages: A Global History, 16th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

24

Figure 23.18

23.18 Joachim Patinir, Landscape with Saint Jerome, ca. 1520–1524. Oil on wood, 2′ 5 1/8″  2′ 11 7/8″. Museo del Prado, Madrid.

Kleiner, Gardner’s Art through the Ages: A Global History, 16th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

25

Figure 23.19

23.19 Pieter Bruegel the Elder, Netherlandish Proverbs, 1559. Oil on wood, 3′ 10″  5′ 4 1/8″. Gemäldegalerie, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Berlin.

Kleiner, Gardner’s Art through the Ages: A Global History, 16th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

26

Figure 23.19A

23.19A Pieter Bruegel the Elder, Fall of Icarus, copy of an original of ca. 1555–1560. Oil on wood transferred to canvas, 2′ 5″  3′ 8 1/8″. Musées Royaux des Beaux-Arts de Belgique, Brussels.

Kleiner, Gardner’s Art through the Ages: A Global History, 16th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

27

Figure 23.20

23.20 Pieter Bruegel the Elder, Hunters in the Snow, 1565. Oil on wood, 3′ 10 1/8″  5′ 3 3/4″. Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna.

Kleiner, Gardner’s Art through the Ages: A Global History, 16th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

28

Figure 23.21

23.21 Jean Clouet, Francis I, ca. 1525–1530. Tempera and oil on wood, 3′ 2″  2′ 5″. Musée du Louvre, Paris.

Kleiner, Gardner’s Art through the Ages: A Global History, 16th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

29

Figure 23.21A

23.21A Gilles le Breton, Gallery of Francis I, Château of Fontainebleau, France, begun 1528, with paintings and stuccoes by Rosso Fiorentino and Francesco Primaticcio, ca. 1533–1539.

Kleiner, Gardner’s Art through the Ages: A Global History, 16th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

30

Figure 23.22

23.22 Château de Chambord (looking northwest), Chambord, France, begun 1519.

Kleiner, Gardner’s Art through the Ages: A Global History, 16th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

31

Figure 23.23

23.23 Pierre Lescot, west wing of the Cour Carrée (Square Court; looking west) of the Louvre, Paris, France, begun 1546.

Kleiner, Gardner’s Art through the Ages: A Global History, 16th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

32

Figure 23.23A

23.23A Jean Goujon, Nymphs, detail of the east side of the Fountain of the Innocents, Paris, France, 1547–1549. Marble, each relief 6′ 4 3/4″  2′ 4 3/4″. Plaster casts in situ. Originals in Musée du Louvre, Paris.

Kleiner, Gardner’s Art through the Ages: A Global History, 16th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

33

Figure 23.24

23.24 Portal, Colegio de San Gregorio, Valladolid, Spain, ca. 1498.

Kleiner, Gardner’s Art through the Ages: A Global History, 16th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

34

Figure 23.24A

23.24A Portal, Casa de Montejo, Mérida, Mexico, 1549.

Kleiner, Gardner’s Art through the Ages: A Global History, 16th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

35

Figure 23.25

23.25 Juan de Herrera and Juan Bautista de Toledo, El Escorial (looking southeast), near Madrid, Spain, 1563–1584.

Kleiner, Gardner’s Art through the Ages: A Global History, 16th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

36

Figure 23.26

23.26 El Greco, View of Toledo, ca. 1610. Oil on canvas, 3′ 11 3/4″  3′ 6 3/4″. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York (H. O. Havemeyer Collection. Bequest of Mrs. H. O. Havemeyer, 1929).

Kleiner, Gardner’s Art through the Ages: A Global History, 16th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

37

Figure 23.27

23.27 El Greco, Burial of Count Orgaz, 1586. Oil on canvas, 16′  12′. Santo Tomé, Toledo.

Kleiner, Gardner’s Art through the Ages: A Global History, 16th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

38

Discussion Questions

How does Protestant art differ from Catholic art during the Reformation and Counter-Reformation? What’s an interesting example from another era, or even now, of how religion influences art?

What role do you think the Isenheim Altarpiece had for the patients in the hospital for which it was painted? Can you think of other ways art intersects with medicine?

Bosch’s enigmatic Garden of Earthly Delights remains the center of controversy. Which interpretation of it do you find most compelling?

Kleiner, Gardner’s Art through the Ages: A Global History, 16th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

39

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Chapter 22

RENAISSANCE AND MANNERISM IN CINQUECENTO ITALY

Kleiner, Gardner’s Art through the Ages: A Global History, 16th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Learning Objectives

Describe the role of Florence, Rome, and Venice in the Italian High Renaissance.

Discuss the style and artistic goals of Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael, and Michelangelo.

Outline the trends in architecture of this period and identify principal monuments.

Identify the characteristics that distinguish Mannerist art from High Renaissance art.

Discuss the status of artists in Renaissance society.

Describe the role of women as artists and as painters in this period.

Explain how the experiments of 15th-century artists were employed by 16th-century artists.

Compare the artistic philosophies that distinguished Venetian Renaissance art from contemporary Florentine and Roman work.

Kleiner, Gardner’s Art through the Ages: A Global History, 16th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

2

MAP 22.1

22.1 Rome with Renaissance and Baroque monuments.

Kleiner, Gardner’s Art through the Ages: A Global History, 16th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Figure 22.1

22.1 Interior of the Sistine Chapel (looking west), Vatican City, Rome, Italy, built 1473; ceiling and altar wall frescoes by Michelangelo Buonarroti, 1508–1512 and 1536–1541, respectively.

Kleiner, Gardner’s Art through the Ages: A Global History, 16th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Figure 22.2

22.2 Leonardo da Vinci, Madonna of the Rocks, from San Francesco Grande, Milan, Italy, 1483–1490. Oil on wood (transferred to canvas), 6′ 6 1/2″  4′. Musée du Louvre, Paris.

Kleiner, Gardner’s Art through the Ages: A Global History, 16th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Figure 22.3

22.3 Leonardo da Vinci, cartoon for Madonna and Child with Saint Anne and the Infant Saint John, ca. 1505–1507. Charcoal heightened with white on brown paper, 4′ 6″  3′ 3″. National Gallery, London.

Kleiner, Gardner’s Art through the Ages: A Global History, 16th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Figure 22.4

22.4 Leonardo da Vinci, Last Supper, ca. 1495–1498. Oil and tempera on plaster, 13′ 9″  29′ 10″. Refectory, Santa Maria delle Grazie, Milan.

Kleiner, Gardner’s Art through the Ages: A Global History, 16th Edition. © 2020 Cengage. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Figure 22.5

22.5 Leonardo da Vinci, Mona Lisa, ca. 1503–1505. Oil on wood, 2′ 6 1/4″  1′ 9″. Musée du Louvre, Paris.

Kleiner, Gardner’s Art through the Ages:

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